Artificial intelligence is a collection of technologies, each of which can be used independently or combined with another to build a technical capability. Key AI technologies are summarized below:
Information retrieval systems: Enable computer programs to store and organize knowledge in ways that allow human users to quickly and easily access a subset of the knowledge within a large amount of knowledge.
Perception: Enables machines to capture and analyze visual, audio and other sensory information and understand their environment.
Natural language processing: Enables machines to interact with humans using human language by analyzing, understanding, and generating responses to data presented to them.
Search and optimization: Enables machines to find the option that maximizes results using limited resources for given set of constraints through maximizing desired factors and minimizing undesired ones.
Decision management: Enables machines to automate and optimize repeatable and operational business decisions.
Knowledge representation: Enables machines to represent information about the world in a form that can be utilized to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
Expert systems: Enables machines to emulate the decision-making ability of a human expert to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of knowledge, represented mainly as “if–then” rules rather than through conventional procedural code.
Machine learning (ML): Enables computer programs to identify useful patterns in data and use these patterns to determine behavior/outcomes when they are presented with new data. This ability to “predict” makes ML the foundation for predictive modeling and today’s artificial intelligence, and thus the single most important AI technology in business today. ML is at the core of practically every business AI solution today, hence the importance of learning to build and use it to create business value. So closely associated is ML with AI that Andrew Ng, Founder and CEO of Landing AI as well as founder and former director of Google Brain, quips (at 13:09 minutes): “… for a technical audience we use the term machine learning, for the rest of the world we say AI.”
Online reference was accessed on 25 November 2020